Why People Go Astray in regards to Qadr?

The reasons why the Qadariyah an-Nafaat who denied predestination (Qadr) and the Qadariyah al-Mujbirah who believed that man is compelled to do what he does (al-jabr) went astray on this issue. Each group saw only a part of the true picture, and was blind to the other parts. So they are like a one-eyed man who sees only one side of a thing and does not see the other side. The Qadariyah who did not believe in Qadr said that Allah does not will kufr, sin and disobedience; He does not love them or accept them, so how can we say that He created the deeds of His slaves which include kufr, sin and disobedience?

The Qadariyah al-Mujbirah who believes in al-jabr believed that Allah is the Creator of all things, and claimed that He loves and accepts everything that He creates and brings into existence.

Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah see the whole picture of the reality, so they believe in the truth that each of these two groups believe, and they reject the falsehood which each followed. So they say: “Although Allah wills that disobedience and sin should exist by His decree, He does not love them or accept them or command them; rather he hates them and forbids them.”

This is the view of all the Salaf (Pious Predecessors), who said: whatever Allah wills happens, and whatever He does not will does not happen. Hence, the fuqahaa ‘ (Islamic jurists) agreed that if a person who swears an oath and says, “By Allah I shall definitely do such and such Insha’Allah (if Allah wills)”, he does not break his oath if he does not do it, even if it was something that is waajib (obligatory) or mustahabb(preferred/recommended). But if he says, “If Allah likes me to do this,” he will have broken his oath if it was something that is waajib or mustahabb.

Those (scholars) of Ahl as-Sunnah who examined this issue said that in the Book of Allah, His Will is of two types: His qadari will, i.e., His decrees concerning His creation, and His shar’ee will, i.e., the laws that He wants His slaves to follow.
His shar’ee will encompasses all that He loves and is pleased with; His qadari or kawni(universal) will encompasses all that exists.

His shar’ee will is referred to in the Qur’an:

“… Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you …”(Qur’an, Surah Al-Baqarah, 2: 185)

“…Allah does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favour to you that you may be thankful.” (Qur’an, Surah Al-Ma’idah, 5: 6)

“Allah wishes to make clear [what is lawful and what is unlawful] to you, and to show you the ways of those before you, and accept your repentance and Allah is the All-Knower, All-Wise. Allah wishes to accept your repentance, but those who follow their lusts, wish that you [believers] should deviate tremendously away [from the Right Path]. Allah wishes to lighten [the burden] for you; and man was created weak [cannot be patient to leave sexual intercourse with woman].” (Qur’an, Surah An-Nisa’, 4: 26-28)

“… Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs [evil deeds and sins] from you, O’ members of the family [of the Prophet], and to purify you with a thorough purification.” (Qur’an, Surah Al-Ahzab, 33: 33)

This kind of will (shar’ee) does not necessarily come to pass, unless it is joined by the second type of will. This type of will clearly indicates that Allah does not love sin, disobedience, misguidance and kufr (disbelief); He does not enjoin them and He does not accept them, even though He wills that they should exist.

Allah loves and accepts things that have to do with His religious, shar’ee will; He rewards those who do them and grants them admittance to Paradise, helping them in this world and in the Hereafter and granting victory to His pious close friends and righteous slaves.
This will encompasses all kinds of acts of obedience, whether or not they happen.
Allah’s universal or qadari will is the will that encompasses all that exists, concerning which we say that whatever Allah wills happens, and whatever He does not will, does not happen.

This is the will referred to in the Qur’an:

“And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam; and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted …” (Qur’an, Surah Al-An’am, 6: 125)
“And my advice will not profit you, even if I wish to give you good counsel, if Allah’s Will is to keep you astray…” (Qur’an, Surah Hood, 11: 34)

“…If Allah had willed, they would not have fought against one another, but Allah does what He likes.” (Qur’an, Surah Al-Baqarah, 2: 253)

“It was better for you to say, when you entered your garden: ‘That which Allah wills [will come to pass]! There is no power but with Allah!’ …” (Qur’an, Surah Al-Kahf, 18: 39)

This will is all-encompassing and nothing that exists operates outside of it. Everything that happens in the universe happens by this will of Allah. This will applies to both believers and disbelievers, righteous and immoral, the people of Paradise and the people of Hell, the friends of Allah and His enemies, the people of obedience whom He loves and who love Him, upon whom He and His angels send blessings, and the people of disobedience whom He hates and detests, who are cursed by Allah and those who curse.

This will encompasses all that happens, both obedience and disobedience, but it does not include that which does not happen.

In relation to both kinds of will, created beings fall into four categories:

1. Those to which both kinds of will apply, i.e., righteous deeds. For Allah wills them by His shar’ee will, and He enjoins, loves and accepts them, and He wills them by His universal qadari will, otherwise they (righteous deeds) would not happen.

2. Those to which only His shar ‘ee will apply, which are the righteous deeds that Allah enjoins, but the kuffar (disbelievers) and immoral people disobey Him. All of this is His shar’ee will, which He loves and accepts, whether it happens or not.

3. Those to which only His qadari (universal) will apply, which are the things which Allah decrees and wills but He does not command, such as permissible things and sins. He does not enjoin them, and He does not accept or like them. He does not enjoin evil or accept kufr (disbelief) for His slaves. Were it not for His will, decree and creation of them, they would not have existed, for what Allah wills happens and what He does not will does not happen.

4. Those to which neither type of will apply, which are the permissible things and sins that do not happen and do not exist. The blessed ones among the slaves of Allah are those for whom Allah decrees the same by His universal qadari will as by His shar’ee will.

The doomed ones are those for whom He wills by His universal qadari will that which He does not will by His shar’ee will. Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah are those who understand the religion of Allah properly, and do not use parts of the Qur’an as evidence against other parts. They know that the rulings of Allah concerning His creation happen according to both types of will. Whoever looks at people’s deeds through both lenses (i.e., acknowledges both types of will) has full sight, and whoever looks at the shar’ee will without the universal qadari will, or vice versa, is one-eyed, as it were, like Quraysh when they said:

“… ‘If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners [in worship] with Him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything [against His Will] ‘ …” (Qur’an, Surah Al-An’am, 6: 148)

Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He), says:

“… Likewise belied those who were before them, [they argued falsely with Allah’s Messengers], till they tasted Our Wrath. Say: ‘ Have you any knowledge [proof] that you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but guess and you do nothing but lie.” (Qur’an, surah Al-An’am, 6: 148)

[1] Sharh at-Tahaawiyah, p. 1 1 6; Majmoo’ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/ 188, 58.
[2] Majmoo’ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/ 198.
[3] Sharh at-Tahaawiyah, p. 1 1 6; Majmoo’ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/ 198, 58.
[4] Majmoo’ al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam, 8/ 198.
[5] Ibid, 8/ 189.
[6] Majmoo’ al-Fataawa Shaykh Al-lslam, 8/ 198.